Electric Scooter Batteries, and Identifying Charge System Components
Understanding the charging system of your scooter is comparable to knowing how to change your oil, and put gas in your car. Some people are comfortable doing it and some are not. Please use this basic Technical Blog as a general theory to most scooter charging systems. There are many types and configurations of scooter drive types, charging systems, and exclusive features that can provide variables that are not covered in this Technical Blog, so use your mechanical know-how, and best judgement to apply the basic idea to your particular scooter application.
How Electric Scooter Batteries Power Your Scooters Motor
Scooters require new batteries eventually, weather the cause is due to wear, old batteries, or damage. Identifying marks on the batteries will give you the Wattage, Voltage, and AH (amp hours/capacity), but sometimes part numbers are hidden by the scooter manufacturers so they can sell you their batteries only. I'll tell you how to cover that trick too, but you'll need a "volt meter", which is a great tool that tells you everything that you need to know. A volt-meter is a good investment if you are planning on working with charging systems often. You will need to know how to locate, determine, and understand your scooter's battery and charging system. Simple things like finding the batteries are the first step to diagnosing issues. Most scooters have a compartment for the batteries and the batteries are under a protective deck, but there are many places that manufacturers store the batteries, so if you are having trouble just follow the wires. After your batteries are located, you should sketch a diagram of your battery configuration, as you see in the image at the top of this Technical Blog. You will need to draw the terminals (negative/positive), mark the Back, Front, how many batteries, and detailed wiring positions. This Diagram that you should draw is like hansel and Gretel's bread trail. You need it to get back to normal.
General Electric Scooter Charge System Overview
- Brain/Controller (Tells your motor how much power to use via throttle input)
- Wires (Connects all the components and transfers power within)
- Fuse (Wires will catch fire if voltage surges, but fuses are designed to pop before the wires will catch fire)
- Throttle Assembly (tells the controller how much power you want through your throttle input)
- Batteries (12 volt or 6 volt batteries are used in parallel, or series to form one big battery via the wires)
- Charger (Transfers power from your walls to your scooter's batteries)
Getting In To Your Electric Scooter's Charging System
The Electric Scooter's charging system is negatively effected by the elements. Open up the scooter battery compartment, sometimes located in the base of the scooter riding surface. Your scooter will have batteries wired together with a fuse box, and the controller that will usually be mounted together. Controllers are usually out of the way, mounted using a shock absorbing material like Polyurethane. The throttle will be on the right hand grip usually, and is wired to the batteries and the controller. The wiring will either be in series, or parallel circuits. Determine which circuit series by looking at the image at the beginning of this blog. Draw your batteries exactly as they sit in your scooter, draw a throttle, and a controller and make sure you label everything correctly. (+ and - terminals clearly marked )
Preparing to Replace Electric Scooter Batteries
Draw the wiring diagram to help memorize the intricate layout. Once you have your diagram you can take the Negative (ground) wires off the battery terminal. Once you remove the ground wire (- or black terminal), the batteries will be inactive, and save to work around. Take the wires off the positive terminals (+ or red terminal), and the batteries are safe to take out. Your batteries part number should contain everything that you need to accurately replace them. If no identifying marks are found, use a volt-meter and your battery statistics will be displayed. Volt meters tell you all of your batteries vital signs, like a heart monitor does for humans. One last variable is the battery length, width, and height. You can get smaller batteries if they are the same output, but larger batteries will not work.
Using the wiring diagram that you made, set the batteries back in the battery compartment exactly how you drew them. (+ and - terminals in the right places) The wiring should still be intact and still connecting the throttle and the controller, so make sure everything is off, so your scooter doesn't jump when you connect the batteries. Hook up the positive terminals first, then the negative. Follow your diagram very carefully, as an incorrect connection can result in damage to the batteries as well as physical damage to you or your home. The final connection on the negative terminal will complete the battery circuit, and the batteries will be ready to charge. Charge the batteries fully before using the scooter again. Cover the batteries up, and secure everything first, so you don't have to worry about water, or dust getting inside the electronics.
Signs of Battery Damage and Replacing Damaged Batteries
Using a Volt-meter is one way to diagnose a batteries condition. Scooters will become sluggish and the power will fade quickly. These are some of the most common symptoms that the batteries are deteriorating. Charger lights sometime display a full charge, but no power gets to the motor. Swelling batteries can be extremely dangerous, so seek professional help if your batteries are swelling. Overcharging leads to overheating, and batteries swell under hot conditions. Batteries that are swollen can swell until they explode, so be cautious and aware when handling swollen batteries. Leaking batteries are equally dangerous because of the battery acid inside. Battery acid eats skin, clothes, and potentially serious injuries. Please be careful.
Where Can I Find Charge System Parts Or Replacement Batteries
Reputable sources are your best bet when it comes to parts and service. You can purchase almost any universal electric scooter battery at through our online parts department. Battery specialty stores will have good deals on quality products, and a wide range of outputs. You will need to test your batteries with a volt-meter your scooter batteries are not marked. The volt-meter will determine the batteries output levels when you it up. Most Electronics Repair Shops will test your batteries for a small fee, if you don't own a Volt-meter. Once you know the batteries output levels, you can buy replacements according to the output, dimensions, and wiring configurations.
Preventing Issues with Maintenance, Parts Stores, and Electric Scooter Repair shop Locators
Batteries are fragile and temperamental so you should not overcharge them, undercharge them, expose them to extreme cold or hot, and don't let them sit for weeks without charging or discharging the batteries. Batteries are dangerous and problems with charging can result in explosions, exposure to chemicals, and potential death.